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Have you seen an introduced bird in the wild?

What kind of behaviours did you observe?

Birds showed breeding behaviour

Birds showed other behaviours

Submit your observations at:

Submit your observations at: Introduced Bird Interaction Survey

Thank you for your participation!

Haben Sie diese Art in freier Wildbahn gesehen?

Schicken Sie Sie Ihre Beobachtungen an: Umfrage zum Verhalten exotischer Vögel

Vielen Dank für Ihre Teilnahme!

Envíe sus observaciones a:

Envíe sus observaciones a: Encuesta de interacciones con aves introducidas

¡Gracias por su participación!

Avez-vous observé cette espèce dans la nature?

Enregistrez de votre observations sur: Enquête sur les intéractions des oiseaux introduits

Merci de votre participation!

Hai visto questa specie in natura?

Mandaci la tua segnalazioni a: Questionario sulle interazioni degli uccelli introdotti

Grazie per la tua partecipazione!

Viu esta espécie em estado selvagem?

Submeta as suas observações em: Questionário sobre Interacções com Aves Introduzidas

Obrigado pela sua participação!

The project

Introduction

Since ancient times, several species of animals and plants were transported to outside its natural distribution for resources production (e.g., food, wood), hunting or aesthetic purposes. Part of that transportation results in intentional or accidental releases to the wild. The fact that the species is not originally from a country or region makes it exotic or non-native in that new place. A small proportion of such introduced exotic species find suitable conditions to settle and reproduce in the new place and start an establishment process without human support. An even smaller proportion of those established species may become invasive if they increase in numbers and spread beyond the introduction place, which might cause negative impacts on environment, agriculture, human health, or economy.

Challenges

The impact of introduced species is hard to evaluate when data on their distribution, abundance and behaviour are not systematically obtained.

Introduced species may be unfamiliar to most citizens because they are often disregarded in popular bird guides, restricted to a particular region, or might be mistaken for some native species.

Objectives

“Introduced Bird Interaction Survey” (IBISurvey) is a Citizen Science project from the University of Évora (Portugal) with the main objective of assessing the environmental, societal and economic impacts of introduced birds in European countries. Reporting the behaviour of introduced birds is key to determine their impacts, including feeding on agricultural crops and behaving aggressively towards individuals of native species. Specifically, the project aims (1) to make easier the identification of introduced birds to the general public, (2) to obtain information on the distribution, abundance and behaviour of introduced species, and (3) to increase public awareness about the impact of introduced species.

The survey

With the “Introduced Bird Interaction Survey”, we encourage citizens to report interactions between introduced birds and other animals, plants and humans. Observers can report any exotic bird species introduced and detected in wild conditions in Europe by typing the species name or by selecting a species from a list of most frequently observed. Beyond that, records of European species that were introduced in countries where they do not occur naturally are also eligible and welcomed.

Your collaboration is essential for us identify which introduced bird species are becoming invasive and to improve our assessment of their environmental, societal and economic impacts. As an example, the feeding habits of a bird may reveal a negative impact on agricultural crops or a competitive advantage over a native species. Reporting the breeding behaviour of individuals is also important to determine the colonization or the establishment success of a species. Also, describing the time of the year, the habitat of occurrence or the breeding area will increase the knowledge of species’ ecology in the novel region and is essential to improve research or to establish successful control plans.

Target species: Introduced birds (or their descendants) observed in freedom conditions in a place where they arrived by human hand.

Non-target species: Birds observed in captive conditions such as zoological park cages (flying birds) or fences (flightless birds).

Species sheets

We produced fact-sheets for exotic bird species (1) that were successfully introduced (i.e. established) in Europe or (2) frequently observed in the wild but without known established populations. A species fact-sheet summarizes (1) diagnostic tips of identification based on bird plumage and comparison to similar species, (2) the ecology of the species, and (3) the current establishment status of the species in each European country and region.

Regarding plumages, three types can be shown: (1) wild type: plumage naturally present in individuals in their country of origin; (2) domestic type: plumage resulting from selection by humans and domestic breeding; (3) hybrid: plumage resulting from the cross between different species. For domestic types and hybrids, only the most common examples are shown.

The status of species in Europe is an ongoing updated section because birds keep escaping or being introduced or because the establishment process takes time. Also, possibly there are introduced populations still waiting to be discovered.

To know how to identify a bird species that were introduced in Europe click here:

Ducks, geese and swans (Anseriformes)

Partridges, pheasants and other gallinaceous birds (Galliformes)

Parrots and parakeets (Psittaciformes)

Song/passerine birds (Passeriformes)

Other bird species

 

References and important links

Useful links for figures, videos and sound of birds: www.ebird.org and www.xenocanto.org

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Collaborators and funding

Research team (University of Évora, Portugal):

Pedro Filipe Pereira
Carlos Godinho
Inês Roque
João Eduardo Rabaça
Rui Lourenço

Collaborators:

Ana Diniz Sampaio, University of Évora
David Epple, Technical University of Munich
Elsa Leclerc Duarte, University of Évora
Fer Goytre, Fotografía de Naturaleza
Francesco Valerio, University of Évora
Pedro Alexandre Salgueiro, University of Évora
Pedro Almeida, professor de Geografia, AE de Vila Viçosa

Illustrations:

Pedro Filipe Pereira

Photography:

Alessandro Mariani, Italia; Leiothrix lutea and Parus major
Carlos Santos, Alapraia, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus singing
Carlos Sarabia, Fotografía de Naturaleza, España; Pycnonotus jocosus
Carole Philippon, France, Instagram: @carole.nature.photos; Survey: Leiothrix lutea and Erithacus rubecula
Christian Almendro, España, Instagram: @kostripadventure; Pavo cristatus courtship
Elena Giuffra, Italia, Instagram: @elena.giuffra; 2 Leiothrix lutea feeding
Eva M Sánchez-Flores, España, Instagram: @evalynxphotograph; Estrilda astrild feeding
Fátima Mendes, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus and horse
Francisco Santos, Portugal; Estrilda astrild feeding young
Hawi Grömping, Germany, www.naturschule.com; Survey: Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus roseus
Jean Yves Paquereau, photographie de la nature, France; Threskiornis aethiopicus
João Lelo, Portugal, Instagram: @joaolelophotography; Ploceus melanocephalus
Mala Patel, Director The Caketail Club, England, the United Kingdom; 2 Psittacula krameri
Mar López, Fotografía de Naturaleza, Alcalá de Henares, España; Myiopsitta monachus feeding
Mari Carmen López Luengo, España, Instagram: @mcarmen_photography; Myiopsitta monachus and Columba livia
Paul Abrahams, the United Kingdom, www.gingerwildlifephotography.co.uk; Branta canadensis and Anser anser; Branta canadensis and Cygnus olor
Pedro Filipe Pereira, University of Évora, Portugal; Pavo cristatus incubating
Peter Koenis, the Netherlands; Cygnus atratus and Cygnus olor
Philip John Passey, England, the United Kingdom; Psittacula krameri and Corvus monedula
Samuele Ramellini, University of Milan, Italy; Leiothrix lutea couple; 1 Leiothrix lutea feeding
Saskia Lemmens, Sayly Photography, the Netherlands; Alopochen aegyptiaca and Ciconia ciconia
Teresa Palacios, Fotógrafa, España, www.teresapalacios.es; Phasianus colchicus courtship
Ton Petrus, the Netherlands; Psittacula krameri feeding
Vie Schoen, the Netherlands; Phoenicopterus chilensis copulation
William Atkinson, Mid-Wales, the United Kingdom; Phasianus colchicus fight

Funding:

MED (IUPB/05183/2020)

Contacts:

LabOr – Laboratory of Ornithology
MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development
Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada
Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
Telephone: 00351 266 760 897
E-mail: labor@uevora.pt

das Projekt

Einführung

Seit der Antike werden zahlreiche Tier- und Pflanzenarten über ihre natürlichen Verbreitungsgrenzen hinaus transportiert, z.B. zur Produktion von Rohstoffen (z. B. Lebensmittel, Holz), Jagdzwecken oder als Zierarten. Teilweise führen diese Transporte dazu, dass Arten absichtlich in die Wildnis entlassen werden oder versehentlich entkommen. Wenn eine solche Art in einem Land oder einer Region nicht heimisch ist, wird sie im neuen Gebiet als exotisch oder gebietsfremd bezeichnet. Ein kleiner Teil dieser eingeführten, gebietsfremden Arten findet im neuen Gebiet geeignete Bedingungen vor, um sich anzusiedeln und zu vermehren sowie ohne menschliches Eingreifen einen Etablierungsprozess einzuleiten. Ein noch kleinerer Teil dieser etablierten Arten kann sogar invasiv werden, wenn ihre Individuenzahl steigt und sie sich über das Gebiet der Einbringung hinaus verbreiten, was negative Auswirkungen auf Umwelt, Landwirtschaft, menschliche Gesundheit oder Wirtschaft zur Folge haben kann.

Herausforderungen

Die Auswirkungen von exotischen Arten sind schwer zu beurteilen, wenn Daten zu ihrer Verbreitung, Häufigkeit und ihrem Verhalten nicht systematisch erhoben werden.

Weiterhin sind exotische Arten den meisten Bürgern möglicherweise unbekannt, da sie in populären Vogelführern häufig nicht aufgeführt werden, auf eine bestimmte Region beschränkt sind oder mit einheimischen Arten verwechselt werden.

Ziele

Die Umfrage zum Verhalten exotischer Vögel (engl.: Introduced Bird Interaction Survey – IBISurvey) ist ein Citizen-Science-Projekt von der Universität von Évora (Portugal) mit dem Ziel, die ökologischen, gesellschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen von eingeführten Vogelarten in europäischen Ländern zu bewerten. Der Schlüssel zur Beurteilung dieser Auswirkungen liegt hierbei in der Meldung des Verhaltens der eingeführten Vögel, beispielsweise dem Fraß von landwirtschaftlichen Nutzpflanzen oder dem aggressiven Verhalten gegenüber einheimischen Arten. Insbesondere zielt dieses Projekt darauf ab (1) die Bestimmung eingeführter Vogelarten für die breite Öffentlichkeit zu erleichtern, (2) Informationen über die Verbreitung, Häufigkeit und dem Verhalten von eingeführten Vogelarten zu sammeln und (3) das öffentliche Bewusstsein für die Auswirkungen von eingeführten Arten zu stärken.

Die Umfrage

Mit der Umfrage zum Verhalten exotischer Vögel regen wir Bürger dazu an, uns Interaktionen zwischen eingeführten Vogelarten und anderen Tieren, Pflanzen oder Menschen zu melden. Beobachter können alle exotischen Vogelarten melden, die in Europa eingeführt und in freier Wildbahn beobachtet wurden, indem sie den Artnamen eingeben oder eine Art aus einer Liste der am häufigsten beobachteten Arten auswählen. Darüber hinaus sind auch Meldungen von europäischen Arten, die in Länder eingeführt wurden, in denen sie natürlicherweise nicht vorkommen, möglich und willkommen.

Ihre Mithilfe ist enorm wichtig für uns, weil wir damit herausfinden können, welche eingeführten Vogelarten invasiv werden und somit unsere Einschätzung über ihre ökologischen, gesellschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Folgen verbessern können. Beispielsweise können die Ernährungsgewohnheiten eines eingeführten Vogels negative Auswirkungen auf landwirtschaftliche Nutzpflanzen haben oder zu einem Wettbewerbsvorteil gegenüber einheimischen Vogelarten führen. Auch die Meldung des Brutverhaltens von Individuen ist wichtig, um die Ansiedlung oder den Etablierungserfolg einer Art zu bestimmen. Die Angabe der Jahreszeit, des Lebensraums oder des Brutgebiets hilft, das Wissen über die Ökologie der Art im neuen Gebiet zu erweitern und ist wichtig, um den aktuellen Forschungsstand zu verbessern oder wirksame Managementpläne zu erarbeiten.

Zielarten: Eingeführte Vögel (oder deren Nachkommen), die in freier Wildbahn an einem Ort beobachtet wurden, an dem sie mit menschlicher Unterstützung ankamen.

Keine Zielarten: Vögel, die in Gefangenschaft beobachtet wurden, wie z. B. in Käfigen (flugfähige Vögel) und Umzäunungen (flugunfähige Vögel) von zoologischen Gärten.

Artenblätter

Wir haben Fact-Sheets für exotische Vogelarten erstellt, die (1) erfolgreich in Europa eingeführt wurden (etablierten Arten), oder (2) häufig in freier Wildbahn beobachtet werden, jedoch ohne bekannte etablierte Populationen zu haben. Das Artenblatt zeigt (1) Bestimmungsmerkmale anhand des Gefieders und vergleicht es mit ähnlichen Arten, (2) die Ökologie der Art und (3) den aktuellen Status der Ansiedlung der Arten in allen europäischen Ländern und Regionen auf.

Im Hinblick auf das Gefieder können drei Typen dargestellt werden: (1) Wildtyp: Gefieder, das natürlicherweise in Individuen des Herkunftslandes vorherrscht; (2) domestizierter Typ: Gefieder, das aus menschlicher Selektion und Zucht resultiert; (3) Hybrid: Gefieder, das aus der Kreuzung verschiedener Arten resultiert. Für domestizierte Typen und Hybriden werden nur die häufigsten Beispiele gezeigt.

Der Status der Arten in Europa wird ständig aktualisiert, da immer wieder Vögel entkommen oder eingeschleppt werden oder weil der Etablierungsprozess einige Zeit in Anspruch nimmt. Möglicherweise gibt es auch eingeführte Populationen, die noch darauf warten, entdeckt zu werden.

Um zu erfahren, wie man eine in Europa eingeführte Vogelart bestimmen kann, klicken Sie hier:

Enten, Gänse und Schwäne (Anseriformes)

Rebhühner, Fasane, und andere hühnervögel (Galliformes)

Papageien und Sittiche (Psittaciformes)

Singvögel / Sperlingsvögel (Passeriformes)

andere Vogelarten

Referenzen und wichtige Links

Literatur und nützliche Links

Nützliche Links für Bilder, Videos und Vogelstimmen finden Sie hier: www.ebird.org  und www.xenocanto.org

Ali, S., & Ripley, S. D. (1999). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan: Together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. 10 Volume Set (Vol 1-10). Oxford University Press.

Andreotti, A., Besa, M., Genovesi, P., & Guberti, V. (2001). Mammiferi e Uccelli esotici in Italia: analisi del fenomeno, impatto sulla biodiversità e linee guida gestionali. N. Baccetti, & A. Perfetti (Eds.). Ministero dell’ambiente, Servizio conservazione natura.

Anton, M., Herrando, S., Garcia, D., Ferrer, X. & Cebrian, R. (2017). Atles dels ocells nidificants de Barcelona. Ajuntament de Barcelona/ICO/UB/Zoo. Barcelona

Arnold, R., Woodward, I. and Smith, N. (2018). Parrots in the London Area – A London Bird Atlas Supplement. London Natural History Society

Baccetti, N., Spagnesi, M., & Zenatello, M. (1997). Storia Recente Delle Specie Ornitiche Introdotte In Italia. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina 27: 299-316.

Baicich, P. J., & Harrison, C. J. 0. (2005). A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. Second Ediction. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Baker, J., Harvey, K. J., & French, K. (2014). Threats from introduced birds to native birds. Emu-Austral Ornithology, 114(1), 1-12.

Banks, A. N., Wright, L., Maclean, I. M., Hann, C., & Rehfisch, M. M. (2008). Review of the status of introduced non-native waterbird species in the area of the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement: 2007 update. Norfolk, United Kingdom: British Trust for Ornithology.

Bauer, H. G., & Woog, F. (2008). Nichtheimische Vogelarten (Neozoen) in Deutschland, Teil I: Auftreten, Bestände und Status. Vogelwarte, 46(3), 157-194.

Bauer, H. G., Geiter, O., Homma, S., & Woog, F. (2016). Vogelneozoen in Deutschland–Revision der nationalen Statuseinstufungen. Vogelwarte, 54, 165-179.

Blackburn, T. M., & Duncan, R. P. (2001). Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature, 414(6860), 195-197.

Blackburn, T. M., Lockwood, J. L., & Cassey, P. (2009). Avian invasions: the ecology and evolution of exotic birds (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Blackburn, T. M., Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Carlton, J. T., Duncan, R. P., Jarošík, V., … & Richardson, D. M. (2011). A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in ecology & evolution, 26(7), 333-339.

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Borrow, N., & Demey, R. (2014). Birds of Western Africa. Helm Field Guides, London.

Carrete, M., & Tella, J. (2008). Wild‐bird trade and exotic invasions: a new link of conservation concern?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(4), 207-211.

Cassey, P., Blackburn, T. M., Sol, D., Duncan, R. P., & Lockwood, J. L. (2004). Global patterns of introduction effort and establishment success in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 271(suppl_6), S405-S408.

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Matias, R. (2002). Aves exóticas que nidificam em Portugal continental. Instituto da Conservação da Natureza. Lisboa

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Mori, E., Grandi, G., Menchetti, M.,Tella, J. L., Jackson, H. A., Reino, L., van Kleunen, A., Figueira, R. & Ancillotto, L. (2017). Worldwide distribution of non–native Amazon parrots and temporal trends of their global trade. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 40.1: 49–62.

National Biodiversity Network Atlas: https://records.nbnatlas.org

Naturbasen – Danmarks National Artsportal: https://www.naturbasen.dk/

Nehring, S., Rabitsch, W., Kowarik, I., & Essl, F. (Eds.). (2015). Naturschutzfachliche Invasivitätsbewertungen für in Deutschland wild lebende gebietsfremde Wirbeltiere. Bundesamt für Naturschutz.

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Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre (2018). The Alien Species List of Norway – ecological risk assessment 2018. https://www.biodiversity.no/alien-species-2018

Nowakowski, J. J., & Dulisz, B. (2019). The Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus, 1766)–a new invasive bird species breeding in Europe. BioInvasions Records, 8(4), 947-952.

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Pagani–Núñez, E., Renom, M., Furquet, C., Rodríguez, J., Llimona, F., & Senar, J. C. (2018). Isotopic niche overlap between the invasive leiothrix and potential native competitors. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 41(2), 427-434.

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Pereira, P. F., Lourenço, R., & Mota, P. G. (2020). Two songbird species show subordinate responses to simulated territorial intrusions of an exotic competitor. acta ethologica, 23(3), 143-154.

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Sol, D., Bartomeus, I., & Griffin, A. S. (2012). The paradox of invasion in birds: competitive superiority or ecological opportunism?. Oecologia, 169(2), 553-564.

Sol, D., Timmermans, S., & Lefebvre, L. (2002). Behavioural flexibility and invasion success in birds. Animal behaviour, 63(3), 495-502.

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Vall-llosera, M., Llimona, F., de Cáceres, M., Sales, S., & Sol, D. (2016). Competition, niche opportunities and the successful invasion of natural habitats. Biological invasions, 18(12), 3535-3546.

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White, R. L., Strubbe, D., Dallimer, M., Davies, Z. G., Davis, A. J., Edelaar, P., … & Shwartz, A. (2019). Assessing the ecological and societal impacts of alien parrots in Europe using a transparent and inclusive evidence-mapping scheme. NeoBiota, 48, 45.

Yésou, P. & Clergeau, P. (2005). Sacred Ibis: a new invasive species in Europe. Birding World 18 (12): 517-526.

Mitwirkende und Finanzierung

Forschungsgruppe (University of Évora, Portugal):

Pedro Filipe Pereira
Carlos Godinho
Inês Roque
João Eduardo Rabaça
Rui Lourenço

Mitwirkende:

Ana Diniz Sampaio, University of Évora
David Epple, Technical University of Munich
Elsa Leclerc Duarte, University of Évora
Fer Goytre, Fotografía de Naturaleza
Francesco Valerio, University of Évora
Pedro Alexandre Salgueiro, University of Évora
Pedro Almeida, professor de Geografia, AE de Vila Viçosa

Abbildungen:

Pedro Filipe Pereira

Fotos:

Alessandro Mariani, Italia; Leiothrix lutea und Parus major
Carlos Santos, Alapraia, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus singendes Vogel
Carlos Sarabia, Fotografía de Naturaleza, España; Pycnonotus jocosus
Carole Philippon, France, Instagram: @carole.nature.photos; Umfrage: Leiothrix lutea und Erithacus rubecula
Christian Almendro, España, Instagram: @kostripadventure; Pavo cristatus Balz
Elena Giuffra, Italia, Instagram: @elena.giuffra; 2 Leiothrix lutea fütterung
Eva M Sánchez-Flores, España, Instagram: @evalynxphotograph; Estrilda astrild fütterung
Fátima Mendes, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus und Pferd
Francisco Santos, Portugal; Estrilda astrild junge fütternd
Hawi Grömping, Germany, www.naturschule.com; Umfrage: Phoenicopterus chilensis und Phoenicopterus roseus
Jean Yves Paquereau, photographie de la nature, France; Threskiornis aethiopicus
João Lelo, Portugal, Instagram: @joaolelophotography; Ploceus melanocephalus
Mala Patel, Director The Caketail Club, England, the United Kingdom; 2 Psittacula krameri
Mar López, Fotografía de Naturaleza, Alcalá de Henares, España; Myiopsitta monachus fütterung
Mari Carmen López Luengo, España, Instagram: @mcarmen_photography; Myiopsitta monachus und Columba livia
Paul Abrahams, the United Kingdom, www.gingerwildlifephotography.co.uk; Branta canadensis und Anser anser; Branta canadensis und Cygnus olor
Pedro Filipe Pereira, University of Évora, Portugal; Pavo cristatus brütendem
Peter Koenis, the Netherlands; Cygnus atratus und Cygnus olor
Philip John Passey, England, the United Kingdom; Psittacula krameri und Corvus monedula
Samuele Ramellini, University of Milan, Italy; Leiothrix lutea paar; 1 Leiothrix lutea fütterung
Saskia Lemmens, Sayly Photography, the Netherlands; Alopochen aegyptiaca und Ciconia ciconia
Teresa Palacios, Fotógrafa, España, www.teresapalacios.es; Phasianus colchicus Balz
Ton Petrus, the Netherlands; Psittacula krameri fütterung
Vie Schoen, the Netherlands; Phoenicopterus chilensis Paarung
William Atkinson, Mid-Wales, the United Kingdom; Phasianus colchicus Kampf

Finanzierung:

MED (IUPB/05183/2020)

Kontakte:

LabOr – Laboratory of Ornithology
MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development
Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada
Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
Telefon: 00351 266 760 897
E-mail: labor@uevora.pt

El Proyecto

Introducción

Desde la antigüedad, varias especies de animales y plantas fueron transportadas fuera de su distribución natural para la producción de recursos (por ejemplo alimentos, madera), con fines de caza o como especies ornamentales. Parte de ese transporte resulta en introducciones intencionales o accidentales en la naturaleza. El hecho de que la especie no sea originaria de un país o región la hace exótica o alóctona en ese nuevo lugar. Una pequeña proporción de esas especies exóticas introducidas encuentra las condiciones adecuadas para asentarse y reproducirse en el nuevo lugar e iniciar un proceso de establecimiento sin apoyo humano. Una proporción aún menor de esas especies establecidas pueden volverse invasoras si aumentan en número y se dispersan más allá del lugar de introducción, lo que puede causar impactos negativos en el medio ambiente, la agricultura, la salud humana o la economía.

Desafíos

El impacto de las especies introducidas es difícil de evaluar cuando no se obtienen sistemáticamente datos sobre su distribución, abundancia y comportamiento.

Las especies introducidas pueden ser desconocidas para la mayoría de los ciudadanos porque a menudo se pasan por alto en las guías de aves populares, se restringen a una región en particular o se pueden confundir con algunas especies nativas.

Objetivos

La “Encuesta de interacciones con aves introducidas” (Introduced Bird Interaction Survey – IBISurvey en inglés) es un proyecto de ciencia ciudadana de la Universidad de Évora (Portugal) con el objetivo principal de evaluar los impactos ambientales, sociales y económicos de las aves introducidas en los países europeos. Reportar el comportamiento de las aves introducidas es la clave para determinar sus impactos, concretamente daños en cultivos o su agresividad hacia individuos de especies nativas. Específicamente, el proyecto tiene como objetivos (1) facilitar la identificación de aves introducidas al público en general, (2) obtener información sobre la distribución, abundancia y comportamiento de las especies introducidas, y (3) aumentar la conciencia pública sobre el impacto de especies introducidas.

La encuesta

Con la “Encuesta de interacciones con aves introducidas“, animamos a los ciudadanos a reportar interacciones entre las aves introducidas y otros animales, plantas y seres humanos. Los observadores pueden reportar cualquier especie de ave exótica introducida y detectada en condiciones silvestres en Europa escribiendo el nombre de la especie o seleccionando una especie de una lista de las observadas más frecuentemente. Además, los registros de especies europeas que fueron introducidas en países donde no se encuentran naturalmente también son elegibles y bienvenidos.

Su colaboración es esencial para que podamos identificar qué especies de aves introducidas se están volviendo invasoras y para mejorar nuestra evaluación de sus impactos ambientales, sociales y económicos. Por ejemplo, los hábitos alimenticios de un ave pueden revelar un impacto negativo en áreas agrícolas o una ventaja competitiva sobre una especie nativa. Reportar el comportamiento reproductivo de los individuos también es importante para determinar la colonización o el éxito de establecimiento de una especie. Además, describir la época del año, el hábitat de ocurrencia o el área de reproducción aumentará el conocimiento de la ecología de las especies en la nueva región y es esencial para mejorar la investigación o para establecer programas de erradicación exitosos.

Especies objetivo: aves introducidas (o sus descendientes) observadas en condiciones de libertad en un lugar al que llegaron por la mano humana.

Especies no objetivo: aves observadas en cautividad, como jaulas en parques zoológicos (aves voladoras) o cercados (aves no voladoras).

Fichas de especies

Hemos elaborado fichas informativas para las especies de aves exóticas (1) introducidas con éxito (establecidas) en Europa o (2) para las observadas con frecuencia en la naturaleza pero sin poblaciones establecidas conocidas. Una ficha de especie resume (1) consejos de identificación basados en el plumaje de las aves y una comparación con especies similares, (2) la ecología de la especie y (3) el estado actual de establecimiento de la especie en cada región y país europeo.

En cuanto a los plumajes, se muestran tres tipos: (1) tipo silvestre: plumaje presente de forma natural en los individuos de su país de origen; (2) tipo doméstico: plumaje resultante de la selección humana y la cría doméstica; (3) híbrido: plumaje resultante del cruce entre diferentes especies. Para los tipos domésticos e híbridos solo se muestran los ejemplos más comunes.

El estado de la especie en Europa es una sección que se actualiza continuamente porque las aves siguen escapándose o siendo introducidas o porque el proceso de establecimiento lleva tiempo. Además, posiblemente haya poblaciones introducidas todavía esperando ser descubiertas.

Para saber cómo identificar una especie de ave introducida en Europa, haga clic aquí:

Patos, gansos y cisnes (Anseriformes)

Perdices, faisanes y otras galináceas (Galliformes)

Loros y cotorras (Psittaciformes)

Pájaros cantores (Passeriformes)

Otras especies de aves

Bibliografía y enlaces útiles

Enlaces útiles para figuras, videos y cantos de aves: http://www.ebird.org y www.xenocanto.org

Ali, S., & Ripley, S. D. (1999). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan: Together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. 10 Volume Set (Vol 1-10). Oxford University Press.

Andreotti, A., Besa, M., Genovesi, P., & Guberti, V. (2001). Mammiferi e Uccelli esotici in Italia: analisi del fenomeno, impatto sulla biodiversità e linee guida gestionali. N. Baccetti, & A. Perfetti (Eds.). Ministero dell’ambiente, Servizio conservazione natura.

Anton, M., Herrando, S., Garcia, D., Ferrer, X. & Cebrian, R. (2017). Atles dels ocells nidificants de Barcelona. Ajuntament de Barcelona/ICO/UB/Zoo. Barcelona

Arnold, R., Woodward, I. and Smith, N. (2018). Parrots in the London Area – A London Bird Atlas Supplement. London Natural History Society

Baccetti, N., Spagnesi, M., & Zenatello, M. (1997). Storia Recente Delle Specie Ornitiche Introdotte In Italia. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina 27: 299-316.

Baicich, P. J., & Harrison, C. J. 0. (2005). A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. Second Ediction. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Baker, J., Harvey, K. J., & French, K. (2014). Threats from introduced birds to native birds. Emu-Austral Ornithology, 114(1), 1-12.

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Blackburn, T. M., Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Carlton, J. T., Duncan, R. P., Jarošík, V., … & Richardson, D. M. (2011). A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in ecology & evolution, 26(7), 333-339.

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Sibley, D.A. (2014). The North American Bird Guide. 2nd Edition. Bloomsbury, New York.

Sol, D., Bartomeus, I., & Griffin, A. S. (2012). The paradox of invasion in birds: competitive superiority or ecological opportunism?. Oecologia, 169(2), 553-564.

Sol, D., Timmermans, S., & Lefebvre, L. (2002). Behavioural flexibility and invasion success in birds. Animal behaviour, 63(3), 495-502.

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Vall-llosera, M., Llimona, F., de Cáceres, M., Sales, S., & Sol, D. (2016). Competition, niche opportunities and the successful invasion of natural habitats. Biological invasions, 18(12), 3535-3546.

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White, R. L., Strubbe, D., Dallimer, M., Davies, Z. G., Davis, A. J., Edelaar, P., … & Shwartz, A. (2019). Assessing the ecological and societal impacts of alien parrots in Europe using a transparent and inclusive evidence-mapping scheme. NeoBiota, 48, 45.

Yésou, P. & Clergeau, P. (2005). Sacred Ibis: a new invasive species in Europe. Birding World 18 (12): 517-526.

Colaboradores y financiación

Grupo de investigación (University of Évora, Portugal):

Pedro Filipe Pereira
Carlos Godinho
Inês Roque
João Eduardo Rabaça
Rui Lourenço

Colaboradores:

Ana Diniz Sampaio, University of Évora
David Epple, Technical University of Munich
Elsa Leclerc Duarte, University of Évora
Fer Goytre, Fotografía de Naturaleza
Francesco Valerio, University of Évora
Pedro Alexandre Salgueiro, University of Évora
Pedro Almeida, professor de Geografia, AE de Vila Viçosa

Ilustraciones:

Pedro Filipe Pereira

Fotografias:

Alessandro Mariani, Italia; Leiothrix lutea y Parus major
Carlos Santos, Alapraia, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus cantando
Carlos Sarabia, Fotografía de Naturaleza, España; Pycnonotus jocosus
Carole Philippon, France, Instagram: @carole.nature.photos; Encuesta: Leiothrix lutea y Erithacus rubecula
Christian Almendro, España, Instagram: @kostripadventure; Pavo cristatus cortejo
Elena Giuffra, Italia, Instagram: @elena.giuffra; 2 Leiothrix lutea alimentación
Eva M Sánchez-Flores, España, Instagram: @evalynxphotograph; Estrilda astrild alimentación
Fátima Mendes, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus y caballo
Francisco Santos, Portugal; Estrilda astrild alimentando crías
Hawi Grömping, Germany, www.naturschule.com; Encuesta: Phoenicopterus chilensis y Phoenicopterus roseus
Jean Yves Paquereau, photographie de la nature, France; Threskiornis aethiopicus
João Lelo, Portugal, Instagram: @joaolelophotography; Ploceus melanocephalus
Mala Patel, Director The Caketail Club, England, the United Kingdom; 2 Psittacula krameri
Mar López, Fotografía de Naturaleza, Alcalá de Henares, España; Myiopsitta monachus alimentación
Mari Carmen López Luengo, España, Instagram: @mcarmen_photography; Myiopsitta monachus y Columba livia
Paul Abrahams, the United Kingdom, www.gingerwildlifephotography.co.uk; Branta canadensis y Anser anser; Branta canadensis y Cygnus olor
Pedro Filipe Pereira, University of Évora, Portugal; Pavo cristatus incubando
Peter Koenis, the Netherlands; Cygnus atratus y Cygnus olor
Philip John Passey, England, the United Kingdom; Psittacula krameri y Corvus monedula
Samuele Ramellini, University of Milan, Italy; Leiothrix lutea pareja; 1 Leiothrix lutea alimentación
Saskia Lemmens, Sayly Photography, the Netherlands; Alopochen aegyptiaca y Ciconia ciconia
Teresa Palacios, Fotógrafa, España, www.teresapalacios.es; Phasianus colchicus cortejo
Ton Petrus, the Netherlands; Psittacula krameri alimentación
Vie Schoen, the Netherlands; Phoenicopterus chilensis apareamiento
William Atkinson, Mid-Wales, the United Kingdom; Phasianus colchicus lucha

Financiación:

MED (IUPB/05183/2020)

Contactos:

LabOr – Laboratory of Ornithology
MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development
Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada
Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
Teléfono: 00351 266 760 897
E-mail: labor@uevora.pt

Le projet

Introduction

Depuis l’Antiquité, plusieurs espèces animales et de plantes ont été transportées hors de leur répartition naturelle pour la production de ressources (par exemple de la nourriture ou du bois), à des fins de chasse ou ornementaux. Une partie de ce transport entraîne des libérations intentionnelles ou accidentelles dans la nature. Le fait que l’espèce ne soit pas originaire d’un pays ou d’une région la rend exotique ou non indigène dans ce nouveau lieu. Une petite proportion des espèces exotiques introduites trouve des conditions appropriées pour s’installer et se reproduire dans le nouvel emplacement et démarrer un processus d’établissement sans soutien humain. Une proportion encore plus petite de ces espèces établies peut devenir envahissante si leur nombre augmente et se disperse au-delà du leur lieu d’introduction, ce qui pourrait avoir des conséquences négatives sur l’environnement, l’agriculture, la santé humaine ou l’économie.

Défis

L’impact des espèces introduites est difficile à évaluer lorsque les données sur leur répartition, leur abondance et leur comportement ne sont pas systématiquement obtenues.

Les espèces introduites peuvent ne pas être familières à la plupart des citoyens, car elles sont souvent absentes des guides ornithologiques populaires, limitées à une région particulière ou peuvent être confondues avec certaines espèces indigènes.

Objectifs

“Enquête sur les intéractions des oiseaux introduits” (Introduced Bird Interaction Survey – IBISurvey en anglais) est un projet de science citoyenne de l’Université d’Évora (Portugal) dont l’objectif principal est d’évaluer les impacts environnementaux, sociétaux et économiques des oiseaux introduits dans les pays européens. Communiquer sur le comportement des oiseaux introduits est la clé pour pouvoir déterminer leur impact, y compris s’ils s’alimentent de cultures agricoles et se comportent de manière agressive envers des individus d’espèces indigènes. Plus précisément, le projet vise (1) faciliter l’identification des oiseaux introduits auprès du grand public, (2) obtenir des informations sur la répartition, l’abondance et le comportement des espèces introduites, et (3) sensibiliser le public au sujet de l’impact des espèces introduites.

L’enquête
A travers l’enquête sur les interactions des oiseaux introduits, nous encourageons les citoyens à rapporter les interactions entre oiseaux introduits et autres animaux, plantes et humains. Les observateurs peuvent signaler toute espèce d’oiseau exotique introduite et détectée dans des conditions sauvages en Europe en introduisant le nom de l’espèce ou en sélectionnant une des espèces d’une liste que comporte les espèces plus fréquemment observées. A part cela, tout enregistrement d’espèces européennes introduites dans des pays où elles ne sont pas présentes naturellement sont également admis et bien accueillis. Une aide à l’identification des espèces introduites qui ne sont pas familières à l’observateur sera fournie grâce au téléchargement de photos.

Votre collaboration est essentielle pour permettre d’identifier quelles espèces d’oiseaux introduites deviennent envahissantes et pour améliorer l’évaluation de leurs impacts environnementaux, sociétaux et économiques. À titre d’exemple, les habitudes alimentaires d’un oiseau peuvent dévoiler un impact négatif sur les cultures agricoles ou un avantage concurrentiel sur une espèce indigène. Il est également important de rapporter le comportement reproductif des individus pour déterminer les possibilités de colonisation ou le succès de l’établissement d’une espèce. De plus, la description de la période de l’année, de l’habitat d’occurrence ou de la zone de reproduction augmentera les connaissances sur l’écologie des espèces dans la nouvelle région, s’avérant essentielle pour que la recherche progresse ou pour établir des plans d’éradication efficaces.

Espèces ciblées: Oiseaux introduits (ou leurs descendants) observés en liberté dans un lieu où ils sont arrivés par la main de l’homme.

Espèces non ciblées: oiseaux observés en captivité, comme ceux en cage de parcs zoologiques (oiseaux volants) ou en espaces clôturés  (oiseaux incapables de voler).

Fiches d'espèces

Nous avons élaboré des fiches d’information sur des espèces d’oiseaux exotiques (1) introduites avec succès (espèces établies) en Europe ou (2) fréquemment observées à l’état sauvage mais sans populations établies connues. Ces fiches d’information résument (1) les conseils de d’identification basés sur le plumage des oiseaux, les comparant à des espèces similaires, (2) l’écologie de l’espèce, et (3) répertorie l’état actuel de l’établissement de l’espèce dans chaque pays et région.

En ce qui concerne le plumage, trois types peuvent être représentés: (1) le type sauvage: correspondant au plumage naturellement présent chez les individus dans leur pays d’origine; (2) le type domestique: résultant de la sélection par l’homme et de la reproduction domestique; (3) hybride: plumage résultant du croisement entre différentes espèces. Pour les types domestiques et les hybrides, seuls les exemples les plus courants sont représentés.

Le statut des espèces en Europe est une section constamment mise à jour en raison du continuel échappement des oiseaux, de leur introduction ou en raison du processus d’établissement prendre du temps. En outre, il y a peut-être des populations introduites qui n’ont toujours pas été découvertes.

Pour savoir comment identifier une espèce d’oiseau introduite en Europe, cliquez sur le lien:

Canards, oies et cygnes (Anseriformes)

Perdrix, faisans et autres gallinacés (Galliformes)

Perroquets et perruches (Psittaciformes)

Oiseaux chanteurs / passereaux (Passeriformes)

Autres espèces d’oiseaux

Bibliographie et liens utiles

Liens utiles pour obtenir images, vidéos et bruits d’oiseaux: www.ebird.org et www.xenocanto.org

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Anton, M., Herrando, S., Garcia, D., Ferrer, X. & Cebrian, R. (2017). Atles dels ocells nidificants de Barcelona. Ajuntament de Barcelona/ICO/UB/Zoo. Barcelona

Arnold, R., Woodward, I. and Smith, N. (2018). Parrots in the London Area – A London Bird Atlas Supplement. London Natural History Society

Baccetti, N., Spagnesi, M., & Zenatello, M. (1997). Storia Recente Delle Specie Ornitiche Introdotte In Italia. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina 27: 299-316.

Baicich, P. J., & Harrison, C. J. 0. (2005). A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. Second Ediction. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Baker, J., Harvey, K. J., & French, K. (2014). Threats from introduced birds to native birds. Emu-Austral Ornithology, 114(1), 1-12.

Banks, A. N., Wright, L., Maclean, I. M., Hann, C., & Rehfisch, M. M. (2008). Review of the status of introduced non-native waterbird species in the area of the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement: 2007 update. Norfolk, United Kingdom: British Trust for Ornithology.

Bauer, H. G., & Woog, F. (2008). Nichtheimische Vogelarten (Neozoen) in Deutschland, Teil I: Auftreten, Bestände und Status. Vogelwarte, 46(3), 157-194.

Bauer, H. G., Geiter, O., Homma, S., & Woog, F. (2016). Vogelneozoen in Deutschland–Revision der nationalen Statuseinstufungen. Vogelwarte, 54, 165-179.

Blackburn, T. M., & Duncan, R. P. (2001). Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature, 414(6860), 195-197.

Blackburn, T. M., Lockwood, J. L., & Cassey, P. (2009). Avian invasions: the ecology and evolution of exotic birds (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Blackburn, T. M., Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Carlton, J. T., Duncan, R. P., Jarošík, V., … & Richardson, D. M. (2011). A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in ecology & evolution, 26(7), 333-339.

Bon, M., Semenzato, M., Fracasso, G., & Marconato, E. (2008). Sintesi delle conoscenze sui Vertebrati alloctoni del Veneto. Boll. Mus. civ. St. nat. Venezia, 58, 37-64.

Borrow, N., & Demey, R. (2014). Birds of Western Africa. Helm Field Guides, London.

Carrete, M., & Tella, J. (2008). Wild‐bird trade and exotic invasions: a new link of conservation concern?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(4), 207-211.

Cassey, P., Blackburn, T. M., Sol, D., Duncan, R. P., & Lockwood, J. L. (2004). Global patterns of introduction effort and establishment success in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 271(suppl_6), S405-S408.

Cheke, A. (2019). A long-standing feral Indian Peafowl population in Oxfordshire, and a brief survey of the species in Britain. British Birds, 112, 337-348.

Chiron, F., Shirley, S., & Kark, S. (2009). Human-related processes drive the richness of exotic birds in Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1654), 47-53.

Clement, P. (1999). Finches and sparrows. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Cramp, S. & Perrins, C. M. (1994). The birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford

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Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D. A., & de Juana, E. E. (2018). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

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Dubois, P. J., Maillard, J. F., & Cugnasse, J. M. (2016). Les populations d’oiseaux allochtones en France en 2015 (4 e enquête nationale). Ornithos, 23, 129-141.

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National Biodiversity Network Atlas: https://records.nbnatlas.org

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Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre (2018). The Alien Species List of Norway – ecological risk assessment 2018. https://www.biodiversity.no/alien-species-2018

Nowakowski, J. J., & Dulisz, B. (2019). The Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus, 1766)–a new invasive bird species breeding in Europe. BioInvasions Records, 8(4), 947-952.

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Pagani–Núñez, E., Renom, M., Furquet, C., Rodríguez, J., Llimona, F., & Senar, J. C. (2018). Isotopic niche overlap between the invasive leiothrix and potential native competitors. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 41(2), 427-434.

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Pereira, P. F., Barbosa, A. M., Godinho, C., Salgueiro, P. A., Silva, R. R., & Lourenço, R. (2020). The spread of the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) in Europe: The conquest by an overlooked invader?. Biological Invasions, 22(2), 709-722.

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Sibley, D.A. (2014). The North American Bird Guide. 2nd Edition. Bloomsbury, New York.

Sol, D., Bartomeus, I., & Griffin, A. S. (2012). The paradox of invasion in birds: competitive superiority or ecological opportunism?. Oecologia, 169(2), 553-564.

Sol, D., Timmermans, S., & Lefebvre, L. (2002). Behavioural flexibility and invasion success in birds. Animal behaviour, 63(3), 495-502.

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Šťastný, K. (2018). Nepůvodní ptáci ve fauně České republiky. Živa 5/2018: 272-276.

Svensson, L., Mullarney, K., & Zetterström, D. (2010). Collins bird guide 2nd edition. British Birds, 103, 248-252.

UNEP-WCMC. 2015. Update on the status of non-native waterbird species within the AEWA Area. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC

Vall-llosera, M., Llimona, F., de Cáceres, M., Sales, S., & Sol, D. (2016). Competition, niche opportunities and the successful invasion of natural habitats. Biological invasions, 18(12), 3535-3546.

Vavřík M., Šírek J., Šindel M., Mlíkovský J., Horáček J., Heyrovský D. & Šimek J. 2019: Revize záznamů vzácných druhů ptáků v České republice. Sylvia 55: 2–74.

Waarneming: https://waarneming.nl

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White, R. L., Strubbe, D., Dallimer, M., Davies, Z. G., Davis, A. J., Edelaar, P., … & Shwartz, A. (2019). Assessing the ecological and societal impacts of alien parrots in Europe using a transparent and inclusive evidence-mapping scheme. NeoBiota, 48, 45.

Yésou, P. & Clergeau, P. (2005). Sacred Ibis: a new invasive species in Europe. Birding World 18 (12): 517-526.

Collaborateurs et financement

Équipe de Recherche (University of Évora, Portugal):

Pedro Filipe Pereira
Carlos Godinho
Inês Roque
João Eduardo Rabaça
Rui Lourenço

Collaborateurs:

Ana Diniz Sampaio, University of Évora
David Epple, Technical University of Munich
Elsa Leclerc Duarte, University of Évora
Fer Goytre, Fotografía de Naturaleza
Francesco Valerio, University of Évora
Pedro Alexandre Salgueiro, University of Évora
Pedro Almeida, professor de Geografia, AE de Vila Viçosa

Illustrations:

Pedro Filipe Pereira

Photographies:

Alessandro Mariani, Italia; Leiothrix lutea et Parus major
Carlos Santos, Alapraia, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus chanteur
Carlos Sarabia, Fotografía de Naturaleza, España; Pycnonotus jocosus
Carole Philippon, France, Instagram: @carole.nature.photos; Enquête: Leiothrix lutea et Erithacus rubecula
Christian Almendro, España, Instagram: @kostripadventure; Pavo cristatus cour nuptiale
Elena Giuffra, Italia, Instagram: @elena.giuffra; 2 Leiothrix lutea alimentation
Eva M Sánchez-Flores, España, Instagram: @evalynxphotograph; Estrilda astrild alimentation
Fátima Mendes, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus et cheval
Francisco Santos, Portugal; Estrilda astrild alimentation des jeunes
Hawi Grömping, Germany, www.naturschule.com; Enquête: Phoenicopterus chilensis et Phoenicopterus roseus
Jean Yves Paquereau, photographie de la nature, France; Threskiornis aethiopicus
João Lelo, Portugal, Instagram: @joaolelophotography; Ploceus melanocephalus
Mala Patel, Director The Caketail Club, England, the United Kingdom; 2 Psittacula krameri
Mar López, Fotografía de Naturaleza, Alcalá de Henares, España; Myiopsitta monachus alimentation
Mari Carmen López Luengo, España, Instagram: @mcarmen_photography; Myiopsitta monachus et Columba livia
Paul Abrahams, the United Kingdom, www.gingerwildlifephotography.co.uk; Branta canadensis et Anser anser; Branta canadensis et Cygnus olor
Pedro Filipe Pereira, University of Évora, Portugal; Pavo cristatus couvant
Peter Koenis, the Netherlands; Cygnus atratus et Cygnus olor
Philip John Passey, England, the United Kingdom; Psittacula krameri et Corvus monedula
Samuele Ramellini, University of Milan, Italy; Leiothrix lutea couple; 1 Leiothrix lutea alimentation
Saskia Lemmens, Sayly Photography, the Netherlands; Alopochen aegyptiaca et Ciconia ciconia
Teresa Palacios, Fotógrafa, España, www.teresapalacios.es; Phasianus colchicus cour nuptiale
Ton Petrus, the Netherlands; Psittacula krameri alimentation
Vie Schoen, the Netherlands; Phoenicopterus chilensis copulation
William Atkinson, Mid-Wales, the United Kingdom; Phasianus colchicus combat

Financement:

MED (IUPB/05183/2020)

Contacts:

LabOr – Laboratory of Ornithology
MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development
Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada
Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
Téléphone: 00351 266 760 897
E-mail: labor@uevora.pt

Il progetto

Introduzione

Sin dall’antichità, le più svariate forme di specie animali e vegetali hanno subito una ricollocazione al di fuori del proprio areale di distribuzione, sia per la produzione di risorse (es. cibo, legna), a causa di scopi di caccia, sia per questioni meramente ornamentali. Parte di questa ridistribuzione è risultata in un rilascio accidentale o intenzionale in natura. Il fatto di una specie non essere originaria di una nazione o di una regione ne fa di essa inequivocabilmente una alloctona (esotica) nel nuovo luogo di ridistribuzione. Parte di tali specie alloctone trova favorevoli condizioni per l’insediamento e la riproduzione, iniziando di consequenza un processo di naturalizzazione senza il supporto da parte dell’uomo. Una ancor più piccola proporzione di tali specie naturalizzate può effettivamente divenire invasiva nel momento in cui vede aumentarne gli individui, così come i dispersori, al di fuori del proprio sito di introduzione, il che generalmente comporta impatti negativi per l’ambiente, l’agricoltura, la salute umana, o l’economia.

Sfida

L’impatto di specie introdotte è complicato da stabilire laddove i dati relativi alla loro distribuzione, abbondanza e comportamento non sono sistematicamente ottenuti.

Le specie introdotte possono risultare non familiari per la maggioranza dei cittadini perché sono spesso trascurate nelle comuni guide di uccelli, ristrette in una particolare regione, o perché potrebbero essere state confuse con qualche specie nativa.

Obiettivi

“Questionario sulle interazioni degli uccelli introdotti” (Introduced Bird Interaction Survey – IBISurvey in inglese) è un progetto Citizen Science dell’Università di Évora (Portogallo) con il principale obiettivo di valutare l’impatto ambientale, sociale ed economico riguardante specie di uccelli introdotte nei paesi europei. La segnalazione di comportamenti di specie introdotte è di vitale importanza nella determinazione del loro impatto, per esempio riguardante danni a coltivi oppure comportamenti aggressivi nei confronti di specie autoctone. Specificatamente, il progetto si propone di (1) facilitare l’identificazione di specie alloctone al pubblico generale, (2) ottenere informazioni sulla distribuzione, abbondanza, e comportamento di specie alloctone, e (3) aumentare la sensibilità pubblica riguardante l’impatto delle specie alloctone.

Il Questionario

Attraverso il “Questionario sulle interazioni degli uccelli introdotti” ci proponiamo di incoraggiare gli cittadini nel segnalare interazioni ricorrenti tra specie alloctone ed altri animali, piante o umani. Gli osservatori possono segnalare qualsivoglia uccello alloctono sia stato introdotto ed identificato in natura in Europa semplicemente scrivendo il nome della specie o selezionandola a partire da una lista di specie più frequentemente ricorrenti. Al di là di questo, la segnalazione di specie europee introdotte in paesi dove solitamente non occorrono naturalmente è possibile e benvenuta.

La vostra collaborazione è essenziale per aiutarci a capire quale specie introdotta stia divenendo invasiva, così come nel migliorare la nostra valutazione del loro impatto ambientale, sociale ed economico. Ad esempio, l’abitudine alimentare di un uccello alloctono potrebbe rilevare un impatto negativo sui coltivi oppure una competizione maggiore nei confronti di una specie autoctona. Segnalare comportamenti riproduttivi individuali è anche importante nel determinare il successo di una specie riguardante la fase di insiedamento e stabilizzazione. Inoltre, descrivere il periodo dell’anno, la tipologia di habitat o dell’area di riproduzione migliorerà le conoscenze sulla ecologia della specie nella regione in cui risulta introdotta, pertanto sarà essenziale nel migliorare la ricerca e nel stabilire azioni di controllo efficaci.

Specie target: Specie di uccelli introdotte (o i loro discendenti) osservati in condizioni di totale libertà in luoghi dove sono giunti a causa dell’uomo.

Specie non target: Specie di uccelli osservate in cattività come gabbie di giardini zoologici (uccelli volatori) o in qualsivoglia recinti (uccelli incapaci di volare).

Schede relative alle specie

Abbiamo finalizzato la produzione di schede per specie esotiche (1) introdotte con successo (specie naturalizzate) in Europa oppure (2) frequentemente osservate in natura sebbene senza la conoscenza di popolazioni stabili. Ciascuna scheda per specie esotica riassume (1) caratteri diagnostici per l’aiuto nell’ identificazione basati principalmente sul piumaggio, e comparandolo con una specie simigliante, (2) l’ecologia della specie, e (3) sul grado di insiedamento di ciascuna specie in ogni regione e nazione in Europa.

Riguardo al piumaggio, tre tipi sono mostrati: (1) tipo selvatico: piumaggio naturalmente presente negli individui appartenenti al loro luogo di provenenzia; (2) tipo domestico: piumaggio risultante dalla selezione umana e dalla riproduzione in cattività; (3) ibrido: piumaggio risultante dall’incrocio tra specie differenti. Per tipi domestici ed ibridi, solo le specie più comuni sono mostrate.

Lo status delle specie in Europa è in costante aggiornamento principalmente perchè gli uccelli alloctoni continuano a scappare o ad essere introdotti, o semplicemente perchè il processo di insediamento richiede un certo tempo prima di essere rilevato. Di consequenza, è probabile che esistano popolazioni che attendono solo di essere scoperte.

Per sapere come identificare una specie di uccello che è stata introdotta in Europa clicca qui:

Anatre, oche e cigni (Anseriformes)

Pernici, fagiani e altre galliformi (Galliformes)

Pappagalli e parrocchetti (Psittaciformes)

Uccelli canori / passeri (Passeriformes)

Altre specie di uccelli

Bibliografia e link utili

Interessanti ed utili link per figure, video, e suoni di uccelli: www.ebird.org e www.xenocanto.org

Ali, S., & Ripley, S. D. (1999). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan: Together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. 10 Volume Set (Vol 1-10). Oxford University Press.

Andreotti, A., Besa, M., Genovesi, P., & Guberti, V. (2001). Mammiferi e Uccelli esotici in Italia: analisi del fenomeno, impatto sulla biodiversità e linee guida gestionali. N. Baccetti, & A. Perfetti (Eds.). Ministero dell’ambiente, Servizio conservazione natura.

Anton, M., Herrando, S., Garcia, D., Ferrer, X. & Cebrian, R. (2017). Atles dels ocells nidificants de Barcelona. Ajuntament de Barcelona/ICO/UB/Zoo. Barcelona

Arnold, R., Woodward, I. and Smith, N. (2018). Parrots in the London Area – A London Bird Atlas Supplement. London Natural History Society

Baccetti, N., Spagnesi, M., & Zenatello, M. (1997). Storia Recente Delle Specie Ornitiche Introdotte In Italia. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina 27: 299-316.

Baicich, P. J., & Harrison, C. J. 0. (2005). A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. Second Ediction. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Baker, J., Harvey, K. J., & French, K. (2014). Threats from introduced birds to native birds. Emu-Austral Ornithology, 114(1), 1-12.

Banks, A. N., Wright, L., Maclean, I. M., Hann, C., & Rehfisch, M. M. (2008). Review of the status of introduced non-native waterbird species in the area of the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement: 2007 update. Norfolk, United Kingdom: British Trust for Ornithology.

Bauer, H. G., & Woog, F. (2008). Nichtheimische Vogelarten (Neozoen) in Deutschland, Teil I: Auftreten, Bestände und Status. Vogelwarte, 46(3), 157-194.

Bauer, H. G., Geiter, O., Homma, S., & Woog, F. (2016). Vogelneozoen in Deutschland–Revision der nationalen Statuseinstufungen. Vogelwarte, 54, 165-179.

Blackburn, T. M., & Duncan, R. P. (2001). Determinants of establishment success in introduced birds. Nature, 414(6860), 195-197.

Blackburn, T. M., Lockwood, J. L., & Cassey, P. (2009). Avian invasions: the ecology and evolution of exotic birds (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Blackburn, T. M., Pyšek, P., Bacher, S., Carlton, J. T., Duncan, R. P., Jarošík, V., … & Richardson, D. M. (2011). A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in ecology & evolution, 26(7), 333-339.

Bon, M., Semenzato, M., Fracasso, G., & Marconato, E. (2008). Sintesi delle conoscenze sui Vertebrati alloctoni del Veneto. Boll. Mus. civ. St. nat. Venezia, 58, 37-64.

Borrow, N., & Demey, R. (2014). Birds of Western Africa. Helm Field Guides, London.

Carrete, M., & Tella, J. (2008). Wild‐bird trade and exotic invasions: a new link of conservation concern?. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(4), 207-211.

Cassey, P., Blackburn, T. M., Sol, D., Duncan, R. P., & Lockwood, J. L. (2004). Global patterns of introduction effort and establishment success in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 271(suppl_6), S405-S408.

Cheke, A. (2019). A long-standing feral Indian Peafowl population in Oxfordshire, and a brief survey of the species in Britain. British Birds, 112, 337-348.

Chiron, F., Shirley, S., & Kark, S. (2009). Human-related processes drive the richness of exotic birds in Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1654), 47-53.

Clement, P. (1999). Finches and sparrows. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Cramp, S. & Perrins, C. M. (1994). The birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Cucco, M., Alessandria, G., Bissacco, M., Carpegna, F., Fasola, M., Gagliardi, A., … & Pellegrino, I. (2021). The spreading of the invasive sacred ibis in Italy. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-13.

De Juana, E., & Garcia, E. (2015). The birds of the Iberian Peninsula. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D. A., & de Juana, E. E. (2018). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Dubois, P. J. (2007). Les oiseaux allochtones en France: statut et interactions avec les espèces indigènes. Ornithos, 14, 329–364.

Dubois, P. J., Maillard, J. F., & Cugnasse, J. M. (2016). Les populations d’oiseaux allochtones en France en 2015 (4 e enquête nationale). Ornithos, 23, 129-141.

Duncan, R. P., Blackburn, T. M., & Sol, D. (2003). The ecology of bird introductions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34(1), 71-98.

Dunn, J. L. & Alderfer, J. (2017). Field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Books.

Essl, F. & Rabitsch, W. (2002): Neobiota in Österreich. Umweltbundesamt, Wien, 432 pp.

Fox, A. D., Heldbjerg, H., & Nyegaard, T. (2017). Invasive alien birds in Denmark. Citizen Science Based Bird Population Studies, 187.

Frith, C. B. (2004). The Birds of Africa. Volume VII (Eds C. Hilary Fry and Stuart Keith). Christopher Helm, London.

Gibbs, D., Barnes, E., & Cox, J. (2010). Pigeons and doves: a guide to the Pigeons and doves of the world. London, UK: A&C Black Publishers

Global Biodiversity Information Facility: www.gbif.org

Hagemeijer, W. J., & Blair, M. J. (1997). The EBCC atlas of European breeding birds. Poyser, London, 479.

Harrison, C. J. O. & Castel, P. (2002). Field guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of Britain and Europe. Collins.

Holling, M., & the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. (2017). Non-native breeding birds in the UK, 2012–14. Brit. Birds 110: 92–108

Hulme, P. E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Minchin, D., … & Vilà, M. (2008). Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(2), 403-414.

iNaturalist: www.inaturalist.org

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Invasive Species in Belgium: http://ias.biodiversity.be/

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Collaboratori e finanziamento

Gruppo di ricerca (University of Évora, Portugal):

Pedro Filipe Pereira
Carlos Godinho
Inês Roque
João Eduardo Rabaça
Rui Lourenço

Collaboratori:

Ana Diniz Sampaio, University of Évora
David Epple, Technical University of Munich
Elsa Leclerc Duarte, University of Évora
Fer Goytre, Fotografía de Naturaleza
Francesco Valerio, University of Évora
Pedro Alexandre Salgueiro, University of Évora
Pedro Almeida, professor de Geografia, AE de Vila Viçosa

Illustrazioni:

Pedro Filipe Pereira

Fotografie:

Alessandro Mariani, Italia; Leiothrix lutea e Parus major
Carlos Santos, Alapraia, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus in canto
Carlos Sarabia, Fotografía de Naturaleza, España; Pycnonotus jocosus
Carole Philippon, France, Instagram: @carole.nature.photos; Questionario: Leiothrix lutea e Erithacus rubecula
Christian Almendro, España, Instagram: @kostripadventure; Pavo cristatus corteggiamento
Elena Giuffra, Italia, Instagram: @elena.giuffra; 2 Leiothrix lutea alimentazione
Eva M Sánchez-Flores, España, Instagram: @evalynxphotograph; Estrilda astrild alimentazione
Fátima Mendes, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus e cavallo
Francisco Santos, Portugal; Estrilda astrild nutrire i giovani
Hawi Grömping, Germany, www.naturschule.com; Questionario: Phoenicopterus chilensis e Phoenicopterus roseus
Jean Yves Paquereau, photographie de la nature, France; Threskiornis aethiopicus
João Lelo, Portugal, Instagram: @joaolelophotography; Ploceus melanocephalus
Mala Patel, Director The Caketail Club, England, the United Kingdom; 2 Psittacula krameri
Mar López, Fotografía de Naturaleza, Alcalá de Henares, España; Myiopsitta monachus alimentazione
Mari Carmen López Luengo, España, Instagram: @mcarmen_photography; Myiopsitta monachus e Columba livia
Paul Abrahams, the United Kingdom, www.gingerwildlifephotography.co.uk; Branta canadensis e Anser anser; Branta canadensis e Cygnus olor
Pedro Filipe Pereira, University of Évora, Portugal; Pavo cristatus in cova
Peter Koenis, the Netherlands; Cygnus atratus e Cygnus olor
Philip John Passey, England, the United Kingdom; Psittacula krameri e Corvus monedula
Samuele Ramellini, University of Milan, Italy; Leiothrix lutea coppia; 1 Leiothrix lutea alimentazione
Saskia Lemmens, Sayly Photography, the Netherlands; Alopochen aegyptiaca e Ciconia ciconia
Teresa Palacios, Fotógrafa, España, www.teresapalacios.es; Phasianus colchicus corteggiamento
Ton Petrus, the Netherlands; Psittacula krameri alimentazione
Vie Schoen, the Netherlands; Phoenicopterus chilensis accoppiamento
William Atkinson, Mid-Wales, the United Kingdom; Phasianus colchicus combatte

Finanziamento:

MED (IUPB/05183/2020)

Contatti:

LabOr – Laboratory of Ornithology
MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development
Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada
Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
Telefono: 00351 266 760 897
E-mail: labor@uevora.pt

O Projecto

Introdução

Desde tempos antigos, várias espécies de animais e plantas têm sido transportadas para além da sua distribuição natural para a produção de recursos (ex. alimento, madeira), para serem utilizadas na caça ou com propósitos estéticos. Parte desse transporte resulta em libertações intencionais ou acidentais na natureza. O facto de uma espécie não ser originária de um país ou região faz dela exótica ou não-nativa nesse novo local. Uma pequena proporção dessas espécies exóticas introduzidas encontra condições adequadas para se fixar e reproduzir no novo local, iniciando um processo de estabelecimento sem o auxílio humano. Uma parte ainda menor dessas espécies estabelecidas pode tornar-se invasora caso os seus números aumentem e os indivíduos dispersem para além do local de introdução, o que pode causar impactos negativos no ambiente, agricultura, saúde humana ou economia.

Desafios

O impacto das espécies introduzidas é difícil de avaliar quando os dados sobre a sua distribuição, abundância e comportamento não são sistematicamente obtidos.
As espécies introduzidas podem não ser familiares para a maioria dos cidadãos pois frequentemente não estão presentes nos guias de campo mais populares, são restritas a uma região em particular, ou podem ser confundidas com espécies nativas.

Objectivos

“Questionário sobre Interacções com Aves Introduzidas” (Introduced Bird Interaction Survey – IBISurvey em inglês) é um projecto de ciência cidadã da Universidade de Évora com o principal objectivo de aferir o impacto ambiental, social e económico das aves introduzidas nos países Europeus. Reportar o comportamento das espécies introduzidas é essencial para determinar os seus impactos, tal como o consumo de culturas agrícolas e a existência de agressividade para com indivíduos de espécies nativas. Especificamente, os objectivos do projecto são: (1) facilitar a identificação de espécies de aves introduzidas, (2) obter informação sobre a distribuição, abundância e comportamento das espécies introduzidas, e (3) aumentar a consciência do grande público para o impacto das espécies introduzidas.

O questionário

Com o “Questionário sobre Interacções com Aves Introduzidas”, nós encorajamos os cidadãos a reportar interacções de aves introduzidas com outros animais, plantas e humanos. Os observadores podem reportar qualquer espécie de ave introduzida e detectada com condições selvagens na Europa digitando o nome da espécie ou selecionar a espécie de uma lista das mais frequentemente observadas. Para além disso, registos de espécies europeias que são introduzidas em países onde não ocorrem naturalmente são também elegíveis e benvindos.

A sua colaboração é essencial para nós identificarmos que espécies de aves introduzidas se estão a tornar invasoras e melhor aferirmos os seus impactos no ambiente, sociedade e economia. Como exemplo, os hábitos alimentares de uma ave pode indicar um impacto negativo nas culturas agrícolas ou uma vantagem competitiva sobre uma espécie nativa. Reportar o comportamento de nidificação dos indivíduos é também importante para determinar a colonização ou o sucesso de estabelecimento de uma espécie. Além disso, a descrição da data, do habitat de ocorrência ou da área de nidificação permite aumentar o conhecimento da ecologia da espécie na nova região e é essencial para melhorar a investigação sobre a espécie e para estabelecer planos de controlo de sucesso.

Espécies alvo: aves introduzidas (ou seus descendentes) observadas em condições de liberdade num local onde chegaram por acção humana.
Espécies não-alvo: aves observadas em condições de cativeiro como gaiolas de parques zoológicos (aves voadoras) ou dentro de vedações (aves não voadoras).

Fichas das Espécies

Nós produzimos fichas de espécies de aves exóticas (1) introduzidas com sucesso (espécies estabelecidas) na Europa ou (2) frequentemente observadas na natureza, mas sem populações estabelecidas conhecidas.  As fichas sumarizam (1) dicas diagnósticas de identificação baseadas na plumagem e comparam nas com espécies semelhantes, (2) a ecologia da espécie e (3) o estatuto de estabelecimento actual em cada país e região Europeias.

Considerando a plumagem, três tipos podem ser apresentados: (1) tipo selvagem: plumagem naturalmente presente em indivíduos nos seus países de origem; (2) tipo doméstico: plumagem resultante de selecção artificial pelo Homem e de reprodução doméstica; (3) híbrido: plumagem resultante do cruzamento entre diferentes espécies. Para os tipos domésticos e híbridos, são apresentados apenas os exemplos mais frequentes.

O estatuto das espécies na Europa é uma secção em constante actualização uma vez que as aves continuam a escapar ou continuam a ser introduzidas ou porque o estabelecimento é um processo que demora tempo. Além disso, existem possivelmente populações introduzidas que ainda não foram descobertas.

Para saber como identificar uma espécie de ave que foi introduzida na Europa clique aqui:

Patos, gansos e cisnes (Anseriformes)

Perdizes, faisões e outros galináceos (Galliformes)

Papagaios e periquitos (Psittaciformes)

Pássaros / aves canoras (Passeriformes)

Outras espécies de aves

Referências e links importantes

Links úteis para figuras, vídeos e som de aves: www.ebird.org e www.xenocanto.org

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Colaboradores e financiamento

Equipa de investigação (Universidade de Évora, Portugal):

Pedro Filipe Pereira
Carlos Godinho
Inês Roque
João Eduardo Rabaça
Rui Lourenço

Colaboradores:

Ana Diniz Sampaio, Universidade de Évora
David Epple, Technical University of Munich
Elsa Leclerc Duarte, Universidade de Évora
Fer Goytre, Fotografía de Naturaleza
Francesco Valerio, Universidade de Évora
Pedro Alexandre Salgueiro, Universidade de Évora
Pedro Almeida, professor de Geografia, AE de Vila Viçosa

Ilustrações:

Pedro Filipe Pereira

Fotografias:

Alessandro Mariani, Italia; Leiothrix lutea e Parus major
Carlos Santos, Alapraia, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus em canto
Carlos Sarabia, Fotografía de Naturaleza, España; Pycnonotus jocosus
Carole Philippon, France, Instagram: @carole.nature.photos; Questionário: Leiothrix lutea e Erithacus rubecula
Christian Almendro, España, Instagram: @kostripadventure; Pavo cristatus corte nupcial
Elena Giuffra, Italia, Instagram: @elena.giuffra; 2 Leiothrix lutea alimentação
Eva M Sánchez-Flores, España, Instagram: @evalynxphotograph; Estrilda astrild alimentação
Fátima Mendes, Portugal; Acridotheres cristatellus e um cavalo
Francisco Santos, Portugal; Estrilda astrild alimentação das crias
Hawi Grömping, Germany, www.naturschule.com; Questionário: Phoenicopterus chilensis e Phoenicopterus roseus
Jean Yves Paquereau, photographie de la nature, France; Threskiornis aethiopicus
João Lelo, Portugal, Instagram: @joaolelophotography; Ploceus melanocephalus
Mala Patel, Director The Caketail Club, England, the United Kingdom; 2 Psittacula krameri
Mar López, Fotografía de Naturaleza, Alcalá de Henares, España; Myiopsitta monachus alimentação
Mari Carmen López Luengo, España, Instagram: @mcarmen_photography; Myiopsitta monachus e Columba livia
Paul Abrahams, the United Kingdom, www.gingerwildlifephotography.co.uk; Branta canadensis e Anser anser; Branta canadensis e Cygnus olor
Pedro Filipe Pereira, University of Évora, Portugal; Pavo cristatus em incubação
Peter Koenis, the Netherlands; Cygnus atratus e Cygnus olor
Philip John Passey, England, the United Kingdom; Psittacula krameri e Corvus monedula
Samuele Ramellini, University of Milan, Italy; Leiothrix lutea casal; 1 Leiothrix lutea alimentação
Saskia Lemmens, Sayly Photography, the Netherlands; Alopochen aegyptiaca e Ciconia ciconia
Teresa Palacios, Fotógrafa, España, www.teresapalacios.es; Phasianus colchicus corte nupcial
Ton Petrus, the Netherlands; Psittacula krameri alimentação
Vie Schoen, the Netherlands; Phoenicopterus chilensis acasalamento
William Atkinson, Mid-Wales, the United Kingdom; Phasianus colchicus luta

Financiamento:

MED (IUPB/05183/2020)

Contactos:

LabOr – Laboratório de Ornitologia
MED – Instituto Mediterrâneo para a Agricultura, Ambiente e Desenvolvimento
Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada
Universidade de Évora, Pólo da Mitra, Ap. 94, 7006-554 Évora, Portugal
Telefone: 266 760 897
E-mail: labor@uevora.pt